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How to Recognize and Report Child and Elder Abuse

Child and elder abuse is a serious problem that affects people from all walks of life. One of the most important ways to protect victims from abuse is by making sure they get the help they need and by reporting cases to the authorities.

Here’s how to recognize the different types of abuse and what to do in case you know someone who is a victim.

Child Abuse

Children who are victims of physical or emotional abuse often display mental and social development problems. In most cases, the abuse comes from their own parents or caretakers. Below are some of the signs of abuse:

  • Physical abuse: A child who suffers from physical abuse might have bruises, burn marks, fractures and scars. They are often fearful of adults or certain people.
  • Sexual abuse: Victims of sexual abuse are forced to have sexual relations or engage in inappropriate physical contact with adults. One sign of sexual abuse is feeling uncomfortable when changing clothes.
  • Emotional abuse: Children who experience emotional abuse are often victims of private or public humiliation and neglect. A child who is a victim might show sudden changes in behavior and act violently.
  • Neglect: Children who are physically neglected show signs of lack of personal hygiene and bad health due to malnutrition, among other things.

If you know or suspect that a child is a victim of abuse and is in immediate danger, call 911. To report a case of child abuse, call the National Child Abuse Hotline at 1-800-422-4453. also has information on how to report suspected child maltreatment as well as other resources for victims.

Elder Abuse

Elder abuse can occur in the victim’s home or at places like assisted living facilities. People who abuse the elderly are usually people who know or take care of the victims. There are several types of abuse and all of them can have a profound negative impact on a person’s physical and mental health.

  • Physical abuse: As with child abuse, elders who suffer from physical abuse also might show bruises or other signs of injury on their bodies. They might often act fearful or look intimidated.
  • Sexual abuse: Elders who suffer from sexual abuse might become withdrawn.
  • Emotional abuse: This occurs when the victim is humiliated and treated with disrespect. The victim might feel useless or inferior and might suffer from depression.
  • Neglect: Elders show signs of physical neglect when caretakers fail to help them with their personal hygiene, food, clothing and medications.
  • Financial abuse: Elders are often targets of financial fraud. This usually happens when people who take care of elders steal their retirement or Social Security money.

If you know or suspect an elder is a victim of abuse and is in immediate danger, call 911. To report a case of elder abuse, call 1-800-677-1116 or visit the National Center on Elder Abuse Abuse where you can find more information on how to help victims.

Drug and Alcohol Overdoses for Young Adults Up Dramatically

According to the National Institutes of Health, hospitalizations among 18 to 24-year-olds increased between 1999 and 2008 by

  • 25 percent for alcohol overdoses
  • 56 percent for drug overdoses
  • 76 percent for combined alcohol and drug overdoses.
  • 122 percent increase for poisonings from opioid pain meds like OxyContin, Percocet, and Vicodin

Signs of alcohol or drug overdose can vary. Some signs to look for include abnormal breathing, drowsiness, sweating, agitation or confusion.

If you suspect that someone has overdosed on drugs and/or alcohol, call 911 immediately. People who have passed out could die, so you shouldn’t wait.

Learn more about first aid for overdoses of drugs and alcohol. You can also find a substance abuse treatment center for yourself or a friend.